A transition layer of water in the ocean, with a steeper vertical temperature gradient than that found in the layers of ocean above and below. The permanent thermocline separates the warm mixed surface layer of the ocean from the cold deep ocean water, and is found between 100- and 1000-m depths. The thermocline first appears at the 55(em60° N and S latitudes, where it forms a horizontal separation between temperate and polar waters. The thermocline reaches its maximum depth at mid-latitudes and is shallowest at the equator and at its northern and southern limits. The thermocline is stably stratified, and transfer of water and carbon dioxide across this zone occurs very slowly. Thus, the thermocline acts as a barrier to the downward mixing of carbon dioxide.

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