Plants both take in and emit carbon dioxide. NPP is the net amount of CO2 taken in by vegetation in a particular area. It is an important element in the balance of carbon exchange between the Earth and the atmosphere. Two main processes are involved: Photosynthesis is the fundamental energy-gathering process of life: sunlight + carbon dioxide + water are transformed into organic carbon + oxygen. This occurs mainly in the leaves of terrestrial plants and in microscopic blue green algae in the ocean. Photorespiration (autotrophic respiration) takes place simultaneously, when plants are exposed to light; the plants take up oxygen from the air and release carbon dioxide. It takes place primarily when plants are exposed to light. In an unperturbed world, the balance between these two processes produces a net loss of carbon dioxide _ approximately enough to balance the carbon which is formed into soils and peat, plus the amount consumed in heterotrophic respiration (respiration by microbes, converting organic matter back into atmospheric CO2). The carbon balance can be changed considerably by human activities and land use changes, and by climate changes. Since the pools and fluxes are large (NPP 50-60 GtC per year), any perturbations that affect photosynthesis or photorespiration can have a significant effect on the atmospheric concentration of CO2.