IA ensures the availability, integrity, identification, authentication, confidentiality, and non-repudiation of friendly information and systems and forbids the access to the information and systems by hostile forces. As a subset of defensive information operations, IA includes provisions for protection, detection, and response capabilities. The protection capability is composed of devices that ensure emission security, communications security, computer security, and information security. Detection is the capability to determine abnormalities such as attacks, damages, and unauthorized modifications in the network via mechanisms such as intrusion detection systems. The response capability refers to the ability to restore normal operations as well as the ability to respond to a detected entity.