The ratio of reflected flux density to incident flux density, referenced to some surface.
Albedos commonly tend to be broadband ratios, usually referring either to the entire spectrum of solar radiation, or just to the visible portion. More precise work requires the use of spectral albedos, referenced to specific wavelengths. Visible albedos of natural surfaces range from low values of ∼0.04 for calm, deep water and overhead sun, to > 0.8 for fresh snow or thick clouds. Many surfaces show an increase in albedo with increasing solar zenith angle.