Unintentional or incidental effects including, but not limited to, injury or damage to persons or objects that would not be lawful military targets under the circumstances ruling at the time. Includes effects on civilian or dual-use computers, networks, information, or infrastructure. Such effects are not unlawful as long as they are not excessive in light of the overall military advantage anticipated from the activity. In cyberspace operations, collateral effects are categorized as:

• High: Substantial adverse effects on persons or property that are not lawful targets from which there is a reasonable probability of loss of life, serious injury, or serious adverse effect on the affected nation’s security, economic security, public safety, or any combination of such effects.

• Medium: Substantial adverse effects on persons or property that are not lawful targets.

• Low: Temporary, minimal, or intermittent effects on persons or property that are not lawful targets.

• No: Only adversaries and their computers, computer-controlled networks, information, and information systems are adversely affected.

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