A T cell that has some characteristics of NK cells. It produces large amounts of cytokines when stimulated, and is activated by fatty substances (lipids) bound to non-MHC molecules called CD1d.
A large granulecontaining lymphocyte that recognizes and kills cells lacking self antigens. These cells’ target recognition molecules are different from T cells.
Powerful chemical substances secreted by monocytes and macrophages. These molecules help direct and regulate the immune responses.
A large phagocytic white blood cell which, when entering tissue, develops into a macrophage.
An antibody produced by a single B cell or its identical progeny that is specific for a given antigen. Monoclonal antibodies are used as research tools for binding to specific protein molecules and are invaluable in research, medicine, and industry.
The smallest amount of a specific chemical substance. Large molecules such as proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids are the building blocks of a cell, and a gene determines how each molecule is produced.
A subset of T cells and B cells that have been exposed to antigens and can then respond more readily when the immune system encounters those same antigens again.
A granulocyte found in tissue. The contents of mast cells, along with those of basophils, are responsible for the symptoms of allergy.
A group of genes that controls several aspects of the immune response. MHC genes code for “self” markers on all body cells.
A large and versatile immune cell that devours invading pathogens and other intruders. Macrophages stimulate other immune cells by presenting them with small pieces of the invaders.